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Chorea associated with persistent low-level viremia in a patient living with HIV: a case report

Author List
GK Rajakaruna
CM Italiano
M John
D Nolan


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encephalopathy refers to cognitive and motor impairment in individuals, after exclusion of other causes. Chorea may arise from a myriad of insults to the basal ganglia, and although HIV is known to compartmentalise to the brain early in seroconversion as well as affect this region, HIV encephalopathy is thought to be rare in the current era of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). To our knowledge, this is the first case report of HIV-1 encephalopathy and chorea in a patient with high CD4 T cell counts on an established contemporary ART regimen and low-level viremia.

Article Category

HIV Treatment

Article Type

Case report

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