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The contribution of observational studies in supporting the WHO ‘treat all’ recommendation for HIV-AIDS

Author List
Nathan Ford
Martina Penazzato
Marco Vitoria
Meg Doherty
Mary-Ann Davies
Elizabeth Zaniewski
Olga Tymejczyk
Matthias Egger
Denis Nash


In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that all people living with HIV (PLWH) should start antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of clinical or immune status. This recommendation followed almost 20 years of research into the clinical and population-level benefits and risks of starting ART early compared with deferring treatment. This article summarises the ways in which observational data support the work of WHO, including the support provided by the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA), taking the example of ‘treat all’.

Article Category

HIV Treatment

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